Paradise lost? Developing solutions to Irans environmental crisis

Paradise lost? Developing solutions to Irans environmental crisis

by
James Marchant, Valeria Spinelli & Mo Hoseini
Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung & Small Media
For free
Place of Publication: London / Berlin
Date of Publication: January 2017
Number of Pages: 160
License: CC-BY-NC

The greatest threat facing the Islamic Republic of Iran today is not political, nor economic, but environmental. This report takes stock of the urgent environmental crisis, and assesses the capabilities of civil society and the Iranian authorities to develop and implement effective solutions.

 

Table of contents: 

Executive Summary

Introduction

1. Mapping the terrain

1.1 Global Solutions // Iran’s International Obligations

  • 1.1.1 The Development of Environmental Law
  • 1.1.2 Implementation of International Environmental Law
  • 1.1.3 Iran’s Compliance with International Environmental Law

1.2 Stemming the Tide // Iranian Environmental Law

  • 1.2.1 Early Environmental Legislation
  • 1.2.2 Iranian Environmental Legislation
  • 1.2.3 Assessing the Effectiveness of Iran’s Environmental Legislation

1.3 Managing the Crisis // Iran’s Environmental Agencies

  • 1.3.1 Mapping Iran’s Key Environmental Stakeholders
  • 1.3.2 Organised Chaos

1.4 Deep Roots // Environmental Activism in Iran

  • 1.4.1 The National Environment Network
  • 1.4.2 GEF Small Grants Programme & International Support
  • 1.4.3 Government Engagement with Civil Society
  • 1.4.4 Civil Society and the Environmental Crisis

1.5 More Heat Than Light // Media, the Environment, and Public Attitudes to the Crisis

  • 1.5.1 Public Perceptions of the Crisis
  • 1.5.2 The Existing Landscape & Development Needs
  • 1.5.3 The State of Environmental Journalism

2. The water crisis

2.1 Bleak Prospects // Drought and the Water Crisis in Iran

2.2 A Thirsty Country // Groundwater Depletion and the crisis of Agriculture

2.3 Paralysis // Institutional Causes of the Water Crisis

2.4 Global Shifts // Climate Change and the Water Crisis

2.5 Drought Is Responsible For All My Woes” // The Social Impact of the Water Crisis

2.6 Troubled Waters // Iran’s Dying Lakes

  • 2.6.1 Lake Urumieh
  • 2.6.2 Lake Hamoun

2.7 Making Waves // Digital Campaigning and the Water Crisis

  • 2.7.1 A Drop of Water
  • 2.7.2 Water’s Footsteps
  • 2.7.3 What Chance Without Lake Bakhtegan?
  • 2.7.4 Water Crisis in Iran
  • 2.7.5 Iran Water Supply

3. The broader crisis

3.1 Iran’s Vanishing Forests // The Deforestation Disaster

  • 3.1.1 Mapping Iran’s Forests
  • 3.1.2 The Crisis
  • 3.1.3 Civil Society Campaigns

3.2 Sand and Smog // The Crisis of Air Quality

  • 3.2.1 The Air Quality Crisis
  • 3.2.2 Civil Society Campaigns

3.3 Vanishing Life // Wildlife Conservation and Biodiversity

  • 3.3.1 Iran’s Collapsing Ecosystems
  • 3.3.2 Civil Society Campaigns

3.4 General Environmental Campaigns

4. Conclusions & recommendations

 

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