Cover with the skyline of Shanghai in the background

China’s Climate Transition: Outlook 2023

For free

China's success in meeting and exceeding its current climate targets is possibly the single
most important factor in the global fight against climate change. Currently, progress on clean
energy deployment is undermined by continued coal capacity expansion and a rapid growth
of energy consumption.

To successfully achieve a peaking and rapid decline in emissions,
China will need increased efforts on energy efficiency, a successful transformation of the
economic growth model, or even higher investments into clean energy.

Product details
Date of Publication
November 2023
Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA) with the support of the Heinrich Böll Foundation
Number of Pages
All rights reserved
Language of publication
Table of contents

Executive summary

1 Introduction

2 Understanding China’s greenhouse gas emissions

  2.1 The meteoric rise of emissions
  2.2 China’s emissions in an international context

3 Pathways to carbon neutrality for China and the world

  3.1 Overview
  3.2 Global pathways
     3.2.1 Central Banks and Supervisors Network for Greening the Financial System (NGFS)
     3.2.2 Climate Action Tracker (CAT)
     3.2.3 International Energy Agency (IEA)
  3.3 Pathways for China
     3.3.1 Institute of Climate Change and Sustainable Development (ICCSD)
     3.3.2 School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University (SENR-RMU)
     3.3.3 Institute of Atmospheric Environment, China Academy of Environmental Planning (CAEP-IAE) and Electric Power Planning and Engineering Institute (EPPEI)
     3.3.4 North China Electric Power University (NCEPU) and Peking University (PKU)
     3.3.5 Energy Foundation China (EFC) and Center for Global Sustainability at the University of Maryland (CGS-UMD)

4 Measuring and benchmarking China’s progress

  4.1 Total CO2 emissions
     4.1.1 Trends compared to benchmarks
     4.1.2 Policies in place
     4.1.3 Data disclosure
  4.2 Non-CO2 greenhouse gases
     4.2.1 Policies in place
     4.2.2 Data disclosure
  4.3 Total energy supply and demand
     4.3.1 Trends compared to benchmarks
     4.3.2 Policies in place: Action for green and low-carbon energy transition
     4.3.3 Data disclosure
  4.4 Electricity generation and capacity
     4.4.1 Trends compared to benchmarks
     4.4.2 Focus on: China’s Coal Power Surge
     4.4.3 Policies in place
     4.4.4 Data disclosure
  4.5 Industry
     4.5.1 Trends compared to benchmarks
     4.5.2 Policies in place: Peaking carbon dioxide emissions in industry
     4.5.3 Focus: Iron and steel
     4.5.4 Data disclosure
  4.6 Buildings
     4.6.1 Trends compared to benchmarks
     4.6.2 Policies in place: Peaking carbon dioxide emissions in the residential sector
     4.6.3 Data disclosure
  4.7 Transport
     4.7.1 Trends compared to benchmarks
     4.7.2 Policies in place: Actions for promoting green and low-carbon transportation
     4.7.3 Data disclosure
  4.8 Provincial actions
     4.8.1 Policies in place: China’s climate transition requires collective efforts on provincial
     4.8.2 Recent adjustments to targets

5 Expert survey and interviews

  5.1 Total emission of carbon dioxide
  5.2 Consumption of primary energy and coal
  5.3 The power sector
  5.4 The industrial sectors
  5.5 The transportation sector
  5.6 New dynamics

6 Conclusions

Appendix: Historical data sources


Your shopping Cart is loading …