Perspectives Middle East #10: Borders - Lines in the Sand or in the Mind?


While the privileged few may cross legitimately by simply presenting their passport, for most, borders present difficult if not insurmountable hurdles. Furthermore there are plenty of other lines of division: social, ethnic, religious and ideological. Any border is a painful memory of the fact that it is not an individual’s choice to define which side he or she is on.

Germany’s New Foreign Policy in the Making

The Middle East is burning and, as usual, all eyes rest on Washington. What, then, is Germany willing and capable to contribute to the crisis management in Iraq? The diffuse reactions by politicians across the political spectrum point toward a significant paradigm shift.

By Charlotte Beck

What Can Europe Do in Iraq?


Publication Series on Democracy 11: This publication describes a new start of cooperation between Europe, the United States, and regional partners in the Middle East to tackle the challenges in Iraq and to help bring peace, stability, and sustainable development to the wider region.

Iraq - Most Dangerous Country for Journalists Worldwide

Two journalists who participated in a media workshop in September/October 2005, organized by the Lebanese American University and supported by the Beirut office of the Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung, were murdered within less than a year by gunmen in the Northern Iraqi city of Mosul. Both Sarwa Abdul-Wahab and Sahar Hussein Ali Al-Haydari were passionate journalists who lived and died to recount their country’s agonizing story.

By Layla Al-Zubaidi, Magda Abu-Fadil

Iraqi Refugees between Precarious Safety and Precipitous Return

Large numbers of Iraqi live in neighbouring countries, especially Syria and Jordan. This report attempts to give an overview of the origin and magnitude of the crisis, probes the likelihood of substantial numbers of refugees returning in the near future, and assesses the responsibility of international actors towards the refugees. By Layla Al-Zubaidi, Heiko Wimmen