Der World Nuclear Waste Report

Focus Europe
Titelbild - The World Nuclear Waste Report 2019
Veröffentlichungsort
Berlin
Veröffentlichungsdatum
November 2019
Seitenzahl
148
Sprache der Publikation
Englisch

Die Menge an Atommüll wächst weltweit. Aber auch 70 Jahre nach Beginn des Atomzeitalters hat kein Land der Welt eine echte Lösung für das strahlende Erbe der Atomkraft gefunden.

Die meisten Länder haben noch keinen konsistenten Ansatz für die Zwischen- und Endlagerung für alle Arten von Atommüll entwickelt und umgesetzt. Die Regierungen unterscheiden sich stark in ihren Strategien: bei der Suche nach einem Endlager, bei der Klassifizierung der strahlenden Abfälle, bei der Festlegung von Sicherheitsstandards, die von den Betreibern verlangt werden, und bei der Finanzierung der ständig steigenden Kosten all dessen.

Die Endlagerung von hochradioaktivem Atommüll stellt Regierungen weltweit vor große, bisher nicht ansatzweise gemeisterte Herausforderungen und birgt unkalkulierbare technische, logistische und finanzielle Risiken. Das stellt der erste „World Nuclear Waste Report – Focus Europe“ fest.

 

  • Laden Sie den Bericht hier herunter (PDF)
  • Die Kurzfassung können Sie hier herunterladen (PDF)

 

www.WorldNuclearWasteReport.org

Im Jahr 2020 wird der Bericht auf Französisch und Tschechisch veröffentlicht. Der Bericht steht unter einer Creative Commons License (CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0). Es können Texte und Abbildungen mit Angabe der Quellen verwendet werden.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Title page
Partners & Sponsors
Foreword
Acknowledgments
Key Insights
Executive summary

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ORIGINS AND CLASSIFICATION
     2.1 Types of waste: the nuclear fuel chain
           Uranium mining, milling, processing and fuel fabrication
           Nuclear fission (fuel irradiation)
           Management of spent fuel
           Reactor (and fuel chain facility) decommissioning
     2.2 Waste quantities and activity
     2.3 Classification systems and categories
           2.3.1 The IAEA classification
           2.3.2 The EU classification
           2.3.3 Examples of national classifications
     2.4 Summary

3. QUANTITIES OF WASTE
     3.1 Reporting obligations
     3.2 Waste quantities along the supply chain
            Uranium mining and fuel fabrication
           Operational waste
           Spent nuclear fuel
           Decommissioning waste
           Estimated waste quantities along the supply chain
    3.3 Reported waste quantities under the Joint Convention
          Uranium mining and fuel fabrication
          Low- and intermediate-level waste
          Spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste
    3.4 Summary

4. RISKS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH
     4.1 Radiation risks of nuclear waste
     4.2 Risks from uranium mining, mine tailings, enrichment, and fuel fabrication
           Health risks from exposures to uranium
           Uranium mining
           Uranium mine tailings
     4.3 Risks from operation
           Risks from gases, liquids and solid waste
           Risks to nuclear workers
     4.4 Risks from spent nuclear fuel
           Risks of spent fuel in pools
    4.5 Risks from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel
           Fissile materials
           Mixed oxide fuel (MOX)
     4.6 Decommissioning risks
           Continued radionuclide emissions from decommissioned reactors
           Decommissioning vs operational exposures
     4.7 Summary

5. WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS
     5.1 Historical background
     5.2 The context of nuclear waste management
     5.3 Management concepts for nuclear waste
           Disposal concepts
           Host rocks
           LILW-repositories
           HLW-repositories
           Deep borehole disposal
     5.4 Interim strategies: storage
           Interim storage
           Extended storage
    5.5 Summary

6. COSTS AND FINANCING
    6.1 The nature of the funding systems for decommissioning, storage, and disposal
           Basic liability for decommissioning and waste management
           Overview and nature of the funds
           Accumulation of the funds
    6.2 Cost estimations and experiences
          Cost estimation methodologies
          Decommissioning costs
          Disposal costs
    6.3 Financing schemes
          Financing schemes for decommissioning
          Financing schemes for interim storage
          Financing schemes for disposal
          Integrated financing schemes
    6.4 Summary

7. COUNTRY STUDIES
    7.1 Czech Republic
          Overview
          Waste classification system
          Quantities of waste
          Waste management policies and facilities
          Costs and financing
          Summary
    7.2 France
          Overview
          Waste classification system
          Quantities of waste
          Waste management policies and facilities
          Costs and financing
          Summary
    7.3 Germany
           Overview
           Waste classification system
           Quantities of waste
           Waste management policies and facilities
           Costs and financing
           Summary
    7.4 Hungary
           Overview
           Waste classification system
           Quantities of waste
           Waste management policies and facilities
           Costs and financing
           Summary
    7.5 Sweden
          Overview
          Waste classification system
          Quantities of waste
          Waste management policies and facilities
          Costs and financing
          Summary
    7.6 Switzerland
          Overview
          Waste classification system
          Quantities of waste
          Waste management policies and facilities
          Costs and financing
          Summary
    7.7 The United Kingdom
           Overview
           Waste classification system
           Quantities of waste
           Waste management policies and facilities
           Costs and financing
           Summary
     7.8 The United States of America
           Overview
           Waste classification system
           Quantities of waste
           Waste management policies and facilities
           Costs and financing
           Summary

8. TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS
9. CONTRIBUTORS
Imprint

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