The World Nuclear Waste Report

Focus Europe
Titelbild - The World Nuclear Waste Report 2019
Place of publication
Berlin
Date of Publication
November 2019
Number of Pages
148
Licence
Language of publication
English

The amount of nuclear waste is growing worldwide. But even 70 years after the beginning of the nuclear age, no country in the world has found a real solution for the radiating legacy of nuclear power.

The final disposal of nuclear waste poses major challenges to governments worldwide. No country has a final disposal site for nuclear waste in operation yet; Finland is the only country that is currently constructing a permanent repository. Most countries have yet develop and implement a functioning waste management strategy for all kinds of nuclear waste. Governments differ widely on their nuclear waste approaches: in trying to find a final repository, how to classify nuclear waste, which safety standards to require from operators, and how to secure funding for the ever-growing costs to pay for all of this.

With reactors across the world approaching the end of their lives, decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants will become increasingly important. This process will produce even more radioactive waste. In absence of final disposal sites, most of the high-level waste and spent nuclear fuel must be stored for many decades, challenging the safety requirements for storage facilities and causing much higher costs than previously estimated.

Overall, there is a lack of understanding about how countries around the world are trying to address the complex challenges that nuclear waste poses. The World Nuclear Waste Report aims to change that. This first edition focuses on Europe and presents the latest facts and figures on nuclear waste and its challenges.

 

  • Download the report here (PDF)
  • Download the executive summary here (PDF)

 

www.WorldNuclearWasteReport.org

In 2020 the report will be published in French and Czech. The report is licensed under a Creative Commons License (CC-BY-NC-ND 3.0). Texts and figures can be used with indication of the sources.

Table of contents

Title page
Partners & Sponsors
Foreword
Acknowledgments
Key Insights
Executive summary

1. INTRODUCTION

2. ORIGINS AND CLASSIFICATION
     2.1 Types of waste: the nuclear fuel chain
           Uranium mining, milling, processing and fuel fabrication
           Nuclear fission (fuel irradiation)
           Management of spent fuel
           Reactor (and fuel chain facility) decommissioning
     2.2 Waste quantities and activity
     2.3 Classification systems and categories
           2.3.1 The IAEA classification
           2.3.2 The EU classification
           2.3.3 Examples of national classifications
     2.4 Summary

3. QUANTITIES OF WASTE
     3.1 Reporting obligations
     3.2 Waste quantities along the supply chain
            Uranium mining and fuel fabrication
           Operational waste
           Spent nuclear fuel
           Decommissioning waste
           Estimated waste quantities along the supply chain
    3.3 Reported waste quantities under the Joint Convention
          Uranium mining and fuel fabrication
          Low- and intermediate-level waste
          Spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste
    3.4 Summary

4. RISKS FOR THE ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH
     4.1 Radiation risks of nuclear waste
     4.2 Risks from uranium mining, mine tailings, enrichment, and fuel fabrication
           Health risks from exposures to uranium
           Uranium mining
           Uranium mine tailings
     4.3 Risks from operation
           Risks from gases, liquids and solid waste
           Risks to nuclear workers
     4.4 Risks from spent nuclear fuel
           Risks of spent fuel in pools
    4.5 Risks from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel
           Fissile materials
           Mixed oxide fuel (MOX)
     4.6 Decommissioning risks
           Continued radionuclide emissions from decommissioned reactors
           Decommissioning vs operational exposures
     4.7 Summary

5. WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS
     5.1 Historical background
     5.2 The context of nuclear waste management
     5.3 Management concepts for nuclear waste
           Disposal concepts
           Host rocks
           LILW-repositories
           HLW-repositories
           Deep borehole disposal
     5.4 Interim strategies: storage
           Interim storage
           Extended storage
    5.5 Summary

6. COSTS AND FINANCING
    6.1 The nature of the funding systems for decommissioning, storage, and disposal
           Basic liability for decommissioning and waste management
           Overview and nature of the funds
           Accumulation of the funds
    6.2 Cost estimations and experiences
          Cost estimation methodologies
          Decommissioning costs
          Disposal costs
    6.3 Financing schemes
          Financing schemes for decommissioning
          Financing schemes for interim storage
          Financing schemes for disposal
          Integrated financing schemes
    6.4 Summary

7. COUNTRY STUDIES
    7.1 Czech Republic
          Overview
          Waste classification system
          Quantities of waste
          Waste management policies and facilities
          Costs and financing
          Summary
    7.2 France
          Overview
          Waste classification system
          Quantities of waste
          Waste management policies and facilities
          Costs and financing
          Summary
    7.3 Germany
           Overview
           Waste classification system
           Quantities of waste
           Waste management policies and facilities
           Costs and financing
           Summary
    7.4 Hungary
           Overview
           Waste classification system
           Quantities of waste
           Waste management policies and facilities
           Costs and financing
           Summary
    7.5 Sweden
          Overview
          Waste classification system
          Quantities of waste
          Waste management policies and facilities
          Costs and financing
          Summary
    7.6 Switzerland
          Overview
          Waste classification system
          Quantities of waste
          Waste management policies and facilities
          Costs and financing
          Summary
    7.7 The United Kingdom
           Overview
           Waste classification system
           Quantities of waste
           Waste management policies and facilities
           Costs and financing
           Summary
     7.8 The United States of America
           Overview
           Waste classification system
           Quantities of waste
           Waste management policies and facilities
           Costs and financing
           Summary

8. TABLE OF ABBREVIATIONS
9. CONTRIBUTORS
Imprint

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